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O determinismo “furado” de Sigmund Freud
(Texto de Márcio Rufino)

Este texto é baseado em uma discussão do best-seller “O Monge e o Executivo” de James Hunter.


Freud trouxe o conceito físico de ação e reação para o comportamento humano, chamando de causa e efeito. Afirmando que os homens não fazem escolhas, defendeu que o livre-arbítrio não passa de uma ilusão. Para ele, as nossas ações são determinadas por forças inconscientes, como um instinto animal. Freud disse ainda que se conhecermos suficientemente a história pregressa, o ambiente ao qual está exposto, e a ascendência genética do indivíduo podemos prever suas escolhas. Ou seja, as causas conhecidas produzem sempre os efeitos esperados.
Por um lado, o determinismo era um eficaz antídoto para o eminente surto de neuroses* espalhadas pelo mundo. O efeito colateral desta sua fábula egoísta foi dar ao homem, preguiçoso por essência, todas as justificativas para seus maus hábitos e comportamentos.
O determinismo psíquico permite culpar os pais por sua infância infeliz que te levou a ser uma pessoa fria, cheia de manias e de poucos amigos; o determinismo genético condena a família pelos genes ruins que cedeu ao que se tornou um alcoólatra; o determinismo sexual atribui toda a culpa a sociedade de hoje pela propaganda vulgar e banalização do amor, justificando nosso excesso de malícia e falta de pureza. Assim, foi alimentada “cientificamente” a falta de responsabilidade por nossos atos. Esta teoria é exata para um mundo que exige a perfeição dos que já nasceram imperfeitos, e um porto seguro para os que vivem o desvio da culpa para o outro.
Tudo isso é colocado em cheque pelo questionamento: será que todos nós, se expostos às mesmas situações agiríamos de forma similar? Até mesmo os gêmeos siameses que compartilharam a mesma célula inicial, a mesma placenta, as mesmas histórias e o mesmo lugar no espaço têm personalidades muito distintas. Negar a influência do genoma, da mídia ou do ambiente sobre cada uma de nossas atitudes seria ridículo. Não somos, no entanto, produtos apenas desses fatores.O que excede a estas influências, diferenciando-nos de máquinas ou macacos, é justamente o que o psicanalista afirma não existir: o nosso livre-arbítrio.
Viktor Frankl, um psiquiatra judeu, seguidor fiel de Sigmund Freud, era um invariável defensor da teoria determinística. Durante a guerra, foi mandado para um campo de concentração, onde sofreu horrores e abusos. Perdeu seus bens e sua família para os nazistas, que usaram até mesmo o seu corpo para experiências médicas. Diante de tudo o que passou, sentiu-se forçado a repensar sobre o determinismo, e escreveu o livro “Em Busca de Significado” ao qual pertence o trecho a seguir:

Sigmund Freud uma vez disse: ”Deixe alguém expor à fome diversas pessoas, de mesma maneira. Com a urgência da fome, todas as individualidades sumirão e em seu lugar surgirá o único desejo não silencioso”. Graças a Deus ele foi poupado de viver nos campos de concentração. Seus textos deitam-se nos sofás de veludo, não na sujeira de Auschwitz. Lá, as “diferenças individuais” não obscureceram; ao contrário, revelaram-se. As pessoas se desmascararam, tanto os porcos quanto os santos.
O homem é essencialmente autodeterminante. Ele se transforma no que fez de si próprio, possuindo as duas potencialidades (ser bom ou ruim) dentro de si: a que se efetiva depende das decisões, não das condições. Além do mais, o homem é este ser que inventou as câmaras de gás de Auschiwitz, entretanto, ele também é aquele que entrou nelas de pé, condenado, mas com a oração do Senhor ou a Shemah Israel no lábios.


Seria o livre-arbítrio uma miragem?
De fato, somos parecidos uns com os outros por nossas limitações, tendências ao mais fácil e fraquezas que derivam de nossa feitura comum pelo Deus vivo. Isto já foi dito por São Paulo em seu discurso aos atenienses:

“Ele fez nascer de um só homem todo o gênero humano, para que habitasse sobre toda a face da terra. Fixou aos povos os tempos e limites de sua habitação.
Tudo isso para que procurem a Deus e se esforcem por encontrá-lo como que às palpadelas, pois na verdade ele não está longe de cada um de nós.”
(At 17,26-27)

O amor individual de Deus por nós, no entanto, fez de cada homem um ser único. E, em cada ser, incutiu a potencialidade de agir segundo o seu agrado. A despeito da história que cada um traz consigo.
Então, pela nossa natureza humana, somos todos iguais. Todos instintivos. Mas, pela força divina, soprada pelo Santo Espírito, somos capacitados para o incrível. O pobre que alimenta o faminto, o doente que socorre enfermos, o dependente que larga seu vício, o rico que age com honestidade e justiça, o jovem que acredita no céu. Tudo isso é ser livre para deixar-se levar pelo compasso de Deus, pelo som da música que vem do céu que habita em nós. Tudo isso é ser autodeterminante. Nada disso é determinismo.



*Neurose: termo controverso utilizado para caracterizar uma síndrome neurológica na qual o indivíduo se culpa por tudo.

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Caraca concordo plenamente com a realidade de poder escolher - livre arbítrio - mesmo sabendo que o meio influência muito! Porque pra mim, ter um destino PRÉ-determinado (com hífen ou sem hífen agora? hehee)e sem chances de mudanças seriam mtooo sem graça os dias!

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marcinho, pelamordedeus bixu!! mandou benzaço no texto hein!!
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